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Sapphire is mainly composed of alumina (Al2O3), is constructed by three oxygen atoms and two aluminum atoms in covalent bond type combination. The crystal structure of sapphire is six square lattice structure. It is usually used in the section of A- Plane, C-Plane and R-Plane.

Because of the wide optical penetration zone, from near ultraviolet to the mid infrared (190nm) , all with good transparency, so sapphire is widely used in the optical components, high intensity infrared device, laser lens material and mask material. Sapphire owns good performances of high speed, high temperature resistance, corrosion resistance, high hardness, high light transmittance and high melting point (2045 C), etc. Meanwhile, it has been a difficult machining material, but can be used as photoelectric element.

sapphire structure

At present, quality of high brightness white / blue LED depends on the quality of gallium nitride epitaxial (GaN) material, while the Gan epitaxial quality is closely linked with the sapphire substrate surface processing quality of use, sapphire (crystal Al2O3) between the C surface and lattice constants of thin film III-V and II-VI deposition mismatch the rate of small, also meets GaN epitaxy process in high temperature resistance requirements, makes the sapphire wafer become the key material for making white / Blue / green LED.

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