chinatungsten online ESTBLISHED1997

Tungsten and Molybdenum Property »

Tungsten for Sapphire Growth Furnace  »

You're viewing: Home >>Czochralski Method

Sapphire Growth Method - Czochralski Method

Czochralski method

The Czochralski method is a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors (e.g. silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide), metals (e.g. palladium, platinum, silver, gold), salts and synthetic gemstones. The process is named after Polish scientist Jan Czochralski who invented the method in 1916 while investigating the crystallization rates of metals.

The most important application may be the growth of large cylindrical ingots, or boules, of single crystal silicon used in the electronics industry to make semiconductor devices like integrated circuits. Other semiconductors, such as gallium arsenide, can also be grown by this method, although lower defect densities in this case can be obtained using variants of the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique.

Due to the efficiencies of common wafer specifications, the semiconductor industry has used wafers with standardized dimensions. In the early days, the boules were smaller, only a few inches wide. With advanced technology, high-end device manufacturers use 200 mm and 300 mm diameter wafers. The width is controlled by precise control of the temperature, the speeds of rotation and the speed the seed holder is withdrawn. The crystal ingots from which these wafers are sliced can be up to 2 metres in length, weighing several hundred kilogrammes. Larger wafers allow improvements in manufacturing efficiency, as more chips can be fabricated on each wafer, so there has been a steady drive to increase silicon wafer sizes. The next step up, 450 mm, is currently scheduled for introduction in 2018] Silicon wafers are typically about 0.2–0.75 mm thick, and can be polished to great flatness for making integrated circuits or textured for making solar cells.

The process begins when the chamber is heated to approximately 1500 degrees Celsius, melting the silicon. When the silicon is fully melted, a small seed crystal mounted on the end of a rotating shaft is slowly lowered until it just dips below the surface of the molten silicon. The shaft rotates counterclockwise and the crucible rotates clockwise. The rotating rod is then drawn upwards very slowly, allowing a roughly cylindrical boule to be formed. The boule can be from one to two metres, depending on the amount of silicon in the crucible.

The electrical characteristics of the silicon are controlled by adding material like phosphorus or boron to the silicon before it is melted. The added material is called dopant and the process is called doping. This method is also used with semiconductor materials other than silicon, such as gallium arsenide.

The growth of sapphire is the same as silicon, but when sapphire is grown by the Czochralski method, the melt is contained in a tungsten or molybdenum crucible.

If there is any other question refer to tungsten crucible for sapphire growth furnace, please feel free to contact us through the following methods:
Tel.:+86 592 512 9696
Fax:+86 592 512 9797

Media Center>   [Information Bank]  [Dictionary of tungsten]  [Products Pictures' Bank]  [Live Video of Processing]  [Videos of Machining]  [Catalogs]
Chinatungsten Group>   [Tungsten Carbide Supplier]   [CTIA]   [CTIA-EN]   [CTIA-日本語]   [Molybdenum Product]   [Tungsten Darts]   [Tungsten Wire]   [Infosys]   [Tungsten Bars/Rods]   [Paper Weight] [Tungsten Carbide Powder]  [Tungsten Copper]  [Chatroulette] [Darts Wholesale]  [Tungsten Wikipedia]
    [Tungsten Alloy]  [Tungsten Carbide]  [XATCM ]  [Infosys]  [DartChina Club]  [Tungsten Heater]  [Tungsten Powder] [Tungsten Fishing]
    [Bucking Bar]  [Tungsten Heavy Alloys] [Tungsten Carbide Jewelry[Metals Price][Xiamen Tungsten]
Address: 3F, No.25 WH Rd., Xiamen Software Park Ⅱ, FJ 361008,China
Certified by MIIT:闽B2-20090025 闽ICP备05002525号-1
Copyright©1997 - 2016 ChinaTungsten Online All Rights Reserved