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Sapphire Crystal Application-Microelectronics

GaN semiconductor epitaxial substrate body
Silicon and gallium arsenide are conventional semiconductor materials of the first and second generations of representatives, their development to promote the development of microelectronics, photonics technology, in order to bring about huge changes in people's lives based on information technology. However, due to the performance of the material itself, the first-generation, second-generation semiconductor materials only work at 200 ℃ below the environment, and anti-radiation, high voltage breakdown performance and so can not meet modern electronic technology development for high-temperature, high-power , high-frequency, high-pressure and anti-radiation, can the new requirements that emits blue light. In this case, select the new electronic device material launched the third generation of semiconductors, GaN and SiC wide bandgap become the representative of the third generation of semiconductor material. In the third-generation semiconductors, GaN material more and more people's attention. GaN has many advantages: the band gap, high electron saturation velocity, good thermal conductivity, high breakdown field, low dielectric constant, good thermal stability, chemical stability. Therefore, the material characteristics of the third-generation semiconductors will eventually cause them to be in the fields of aerospace, exploration, development of nuclear energy, satellite, communications, automotive engine, displays, new light source, laser printing, memory, etc. have broad application prospects. As early as the 1970s, people began to explore the GaN growth process, but due to technical limitations of material growth can not get high-quality GaN crystal. With the growth of technology, it has appeared in a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and other new methods, which greatly promoted the study of GaN. Sapphire crystal as a substrate material, which has the same crystal structure as GaN, having a chemically stable at high temperatures, good thermal performance, as well as easy to obtain a large size relatively cheap, etc., exists between the GaN although larger lattice mismatch . With the continuous improvement of the growth of technology, is now capable epitaxy a high-quality GaN on sapphire crystal, sapphire wafer (0001) has become the most ideal substrate material practical applications.

SOS(silicon on sapphire)
SOI (Silicon on Sapphire) microelectronic circuits, is the sapphire wafers (1-102) plane by heteroepitaxial growth method of silicon single crystal film layer, and then the silicon single crystal film technology in the production of a semiconductor device . SOS microelectronic circuit has an advantage due to high speed, low power consumption and anti-radiation, etc., so the development of the watch type mobile phone, desktop or laptop computer, high-speed, high-frequency radio communications, small satellites, spacecraft and space shuttle in They have a particularly important application. Sapphire and silicon single crystal having a thermal expansion coefficient close. On a sapphire wafer (1-102) plane, with the hetero-epitaxial method can grow a silicon film layer (100) plane, and then fabricating a semiconductor device in a silicon single crystal film. The crystal structure of sapphire substrate intact, is to ensure the structural integrity of the main conditions to obtain a silicon single crystal film.

ZnO, InN epitaxial film and other substrate body
ZnO at room temperature band gap 3.37eV, corresponding to the ultraviolet light, compared to a direct band gap wurtzite Ⅱ-Ⅵ group semiconductor crystal and similar semiconductor GaN, ZnS, ZnO has a higher exciton binding energy, its value 60meV, can greatly reduce the lasing threshold at a low temperature. Thus ZnO exciton gain is expected to achieve at room temperature or higher temperatures, thus the value of short-wavelength lasers in the low threshold to get the application. Since optical pumping at room temperature to achieve lasing in the ultraviolet high quality ZnO films later,
Growth, p-type doping ZnO single crystal thin film research in the world caused a lot of concern Study Group. Sapphire crystals by low cost and high integrity has been widely used as substrate ZnO epitaxial layer.

In Ⅲ-Ⅴ nitride in, InN is being more and more attention. Compared with GaN, AlN, InN having the smallest effective mass, in theory, it has the highest carrier mobility, so it has broad application prospects in terms of high-speed microelectronic devices. While Ⅲ-Ⅴ nitride, it also has the smallest direct bandgap, and its value is about 0.8eV, so that makes Ⅲ-Ⅴ nitride AlN emission wavelength may extend from the ultraviolet region (6.2eV) to InN infrared region (0.8eV), become a light emitting device suitable material preparation. However, the preparation of InN single crystal body is very difficult, so far people InN study is still in the initial stage, in a foreign country, Masuoka and others with MOVPE method on a sapphire substrate was the first successful single-crystal InN epitaxial film. In China, Xiao Hong, who led by RF plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (RF-MBE) method on a sapphire substrate to obtain a better crystal quality single-crystal InN epitaxial film. High-temperature superconducting films such as YBa2Cu3O7 - δ (YBCO) the microwave surface resistance Rs than the conventional metal material several orders of magnitude can be used to design a high-performance passive microwave devices, such as filters, resonators, delay lines and the like. Sapphire crystals small dielectric constant, low dielectric loss and excellent microwave properties, mechanical strength, and high thermal conductivity, is more than 20 times LaAlO3 substrate. Large area sapphire single crystal material has industrial production and relatively inexpensive price, and therefore is a good substrate material. As a ferroelectric substrate material: used as a ferroelectric memory, spatial light modulators, optical switches, random access memory ferroelectric thin films, infrared detectors, drives, optical modulators, displays, etc., with excellent striking performance and use value.

Sapphire crystal as a substrate material, the demand in the international market is getting bigger, while the quality and size of the crystals requirements are also rising.

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