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Introduction to Sapphire

The content of sapphire crystal is α-Al2O3, which combines three oxygen atom and two aluminum atom. Its crystal structure is hexagonal lattice.

Alumina crystal sapphire is rendered transparent and colorless, but because of different color element ion penetration in the growth of the sapphire, which makes sapphire show different colors. In nature, when sapphire is grown, the crystal containing titanium ions (Ti3 +) with the iron ions (Fe3 +), will appear blue crystals and became blue sapphires (Blue Sapphire). When the crystal containing chromium ions (Cr3 +), causes the crystal red, and become Ruby. And when the crystal containing nickel ions (Ni3 +), makes crystal yellow, and become yellow sapphire.

Sapphire crystal chemical properties are very stable, generally insoluble in water and not acid, alkali corrosion, only at a higher temperature (300 ℃) for hydrofluoric acid, phosphoric acid and molten potassium hydroxide eroded. The hardness of sapphire crystal is a Mohs hardness of 9, second only to diamond the hardest. It has very good light transmission, thermal conductivity and electrical insulation, good mechanical properties and a wear-resistant and anti-erosion characteristic. Sapphire crystal melting point is 2050 ℃, boiling point 3500 ℃, the maximum working temperature up to 1900 ℃. Therefore, as an important technology sapphire crystal, it has been widely used in many fields of science and technology, defense and civilian industries.


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